RAC 12c : Pluggable Databases

Overview

    • PDBs and its services do not start automatically, it is your responsibility to start them when the database starts ( -> use a database trigger )
    • You should create services to connect to a PDB database and to archive failover and load balancing capabilities across cluster nodes
    • Connect to PDBs using SCAN address and service name
    •  New Data Dictionary views : CDB_XXXX views show related objects for CDB and all PDBs
    • PDB Benefits
      • Centralized management for patching and backups
      •  PDBs  reduces resources
      •      Storage ( reduced data dictionary storage )
      •      Memory ( PDBs don’t run Oracle BG proesses, PDBs don’t allocates own SGA )
      •      CPU usage ( less instance overhead as we have only 1 instance for all PDBs)
    • Container IDs:
      0   select CON_ID  from v$database
          select CON_ID  from v$instance;
       1  root container database  : CDB  1.st container
       2  Seed PDB                        2.nd container
      >2  Newly created PDBs              3.rd container ..

 

Create a pluggable database with dbca

Invoke dbca :
Manage Pluggable Database
  Create a a Pluggable Database
    Create a new Pluggable Database

Summary:
Container Database:           gract1
Pluggable Database:           PDB1
Pluggable database source:    Default
Datafile location:            Use Oracle Managed Files
Configure Database Vault:     No
Configure Label Security:     No

Alert.log :
Fri Oct 04 16:37:29 2013
CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE PDB1 ADMIN USER pdb_admin IDENTIFIED BY * ROLES=(CONNECT)  file_name_convert=NONE
Fri Oct 04 16:40:25 2013
****************************************************************
Pluggable Database PDB1 with pdb id - 3 is created as UNUSABLE.
If any errors are encountered before the pdb is marked as NEW,
then the pdb must be dropped
****************************************************************
This instance was first to open pluggable database PDB1 (container=3)
Deleting old file#5 from file$ 
Deleting old file#7 from file$ 
Adding new file#16 to file$(old file#5) 
Adding new file#17 to file$(old file#7) 
Successfully created internal service pdb1 at open
ALTER SYSTEM: Flushing buffer cache inst=1 container=3 local
Fri Oct 04 16:40:35 2013
****************************************************************
Post plug operations are now complete.
Pluggable database PDB1 with pdb id - 3 is now marked as NEW.
****************************************************************
Completed: CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE PDB1 ADMIN USER pdb_admin IDENTIFIED BY * ROLES=(CONNECT)  file_name_convert=NONE
alter pluggable database PDB1 open instances=all
Fri Oct 04 16:40:35 2013
This instance was first to open pluggable database PDB1 (container=3)
Pluggable database PDB1 dictionary check beginning
Pluggable Database PDB1 Dictionary check complete
Fri Oct 04 16:40:48 2013
Opening pdb PDB1 (3) with no Resource Manager plan active
XDB installed.
XDB initialized.
Fri Oct 04 16:41:01 2013
Pluggable database PDB1 opened read write
Completed: alter pluggable database PDB1 open instances=all
CREATE SMALLFILE TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING  DATAFILE SIZE 5M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT  1280K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED  EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT  AUTO
Completed: CREATE SMALLFILE TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING  DATAFILE SIZE 5M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT  1280K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED  EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT  AUTO
ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TABLESPACE "USERS"
Completed: ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TABLESPACE "USERS"
Fri Oct 04 16:41:23 2013
Shared IO Pool defaulting to 64MB. Trying to get it from Buffer Cache for process 6453.

 

Check the current instance and storage status of a PDB

Instances ruinning for all of our CDB, PDBs
SQL> select INST_ID, INSTANCE_NUMBER, INSTANCE_NAME, HOST_NAME, DATABASE_STATUS, con_id  from gv$instance;
   INST_ID INSTANCE_NUMBER INSTANCE_NAME    HOST_NAME         DATABASE_STATUS       CON_ID
---------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------- ----------------- ----------
     1         1 cdb1         gract1.example.com     ACTIVE             0
     3         3 cdb3         gract3.example.com     ACTIVE             0
     2         2 cdb2         gract2.example.com     ACTIVE             0
--> Our CDB is a 3 node RAC cluster
    PDBs aren't running an own instances they are using the CDB instance 

How many PDBs are hosted by our CDB ?
SQL> select * from v$pdbs;
    CON_ID     DBID     CON_UID GUID                  NAME         OPEN_MODE    RES OPEN_TIME              CREATE_SCN TOTAL_SIZE
---------- ---------- ---------- -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- --- ------------------------- ---------- ----------
     2 4097414398 4097414398 FFE2B5D067357B55E0436F01A8C0F0F0 PDB$SEED   READ ONLY    NO  05-AUG-14 03.32.33.866 PM     1720758  283115520
     3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1         READ WRITE NO  05-AUG-14 03.39.23.762 PM     1755988  288358400
--> We have 2 PDBs - PDB1 is a user created PDB 

What is the status of our PDBs ?
SQL> select INST_ID, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID, NAME, OPEN_MODE, RESTRICTED  from gv$pdbs where NAME='PDB1';
   INST_ID     CON_ID      DBID     CON_UID GUID                             NAME    OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------------------------------- ------ ---------- ---
     3              3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE  NO
     1              3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE  NO
     2              3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE  NO
--> PDB1 is running  on all 3 RAC nodes ( cdb1,cdb2,cdb3 )

Storage
SQL> select file_name, con_id from cdb_data_files;
FILE_NAME                                                                          CON_ID  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/system.273.854810097                                                1
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/sysaux.283.854809845                                                1
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/undotbs1.279.854810307                                              1
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/users.295.854810303                                                 1
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/undotbs2.294.854810989                                              1
+DATA/CDB/DATAFILE/undotbs3.286.854810995                                              1
+DATA/CDB/DD7C48AA5A4404A2E04325AAE80A403C/DATAFILE/system.275.854810401               2
+DATA/CDB/DD7C48AA5A4404A2E04325AAE80A403C/DATAFILE/sysaux.281.854810401               2
+DATA/CDB/FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE/DATAFILE/system.272.854811641               3
+DATA/CDB/FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE/DATAFILE/sysaux.278.854811821               3
+DATA/CDB/FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE/DATAFILE/users.270.854812071                3
--> PDB1 ( con_id = 3 ) has a system,sysaux and users tablespace 
    PDB$SEED  ( con_id = 2 ) has a system,sysaux tablespace only 
    root container ( con_id =1 ) has a system, sysaux, undotbs1, undotbs2, undotbs3 an an users tablespace 
    Note: Each RAC node has its own undo tablespace     

 

Start and stop a pluggable database in a RAC cluster

Startup and shutdown a PDBs 

SQL>  connect sys/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/cdb as sysdba
Connected.

Stop a single PDB
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close instances=('cdb1');
SQL>  select INST_ID, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID, NAME, OPEN_MODE, RESTRICTED    from gv$pdbs where NAME='PDB1';
   INST_ID     CON_ID        DBID    CON_UID GUID                      NAME    OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ---
     3        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO
     1        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    MOUNTED
     2        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO

Stop 2 PDBs
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close instances=('cdb2','cdb3');
Pluggable database altered.
SQL>  select INST_ID, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID, NAME, OPEN_MODE, RESTRICTED    from gv$pdbs where NAME='PDB1';
   INST_ID     CON_ID        DBID    CON_UID GUID                     NAME     OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------------------- ---------- ---------- ---
     1        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    MOUNTED
     3        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    MOUNTED
     2        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    MOUNTED

Open 2 PDBs 
SQL>   alter pluggable database PDB1 open instances=('cdb1','cdb3');
Pluggable database altered.
SQL>  select INST_ID, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID, NAME, OPEN_MODE, RESTRICTED    from gv$pdbs where NAME='PDB1';
   INST_ID     CON_ID        DBID    CON_UID GUID                 NAME    OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---
     2        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    MOUNTED
     1        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO
     3        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO

Stop a single PDB
SQL>   alter pluggable database PDB1 open instances=('cdb2');
Pluggable database altered.
SQL>  select INST_ID, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID, NAME, OPEN_MODE, RESTRICTED    from gv$pdbs where NAME='PDB1';
   INST_ID     CON_ID        DBID    CON_UID GUID                 NAME    OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---
     1        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO
     3        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO
     2        3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE PDB1    READ WRITE NO

Open and close all PDB instances 
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 open  instances=all;
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close  instances=all;

CLose a PDB with immediate option
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close immediate instances=('cdb3');


Verify that pdb1 is registered with the listeners:
$ lsnrctl status
..
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "gract1_1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
-->  local listener only  knows  local PDB service running on local PDB lsnrctl status LISTENER_SCAN1
Service "pdb1" has 3 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Instance "cdb2", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Instance "cdb3", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
-->  SCAN listener knows  all PDB services currently running on instances cdb1,cdb2 and cdb3 

 

Connect to a PDB instance

Connect to PDP service using EZconnect
Find SCAN address and connect to a  service[root@gract1 Desktop]# srvctl config scan
SCAN name: gract-scan.grid12c.example.com, Network: 1
Subnet IPv4: 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0/eth1
...
[root@gract1 Desktop]# ping gract-scan.grid12c.example.com
PING gract-scan.grid12c.example.com (192.168.1.186) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.186: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.025 ms..
..

Check service status to which we want to connect to :
[grid@gract1 ~]$  crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract2       STABLE 

Testing Load Balacning by conneting to the  SCAN address and using service hr  
SQL> connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/hr
SQL> select 'Connect Info - Host: ' ||    sys_context('USERENV', 'SERVER_HOST')  || '   PDB:  ' || sys_context('USERENV', 'CON_NAME')  || '    CDB_instance: '
     ||  sys_context('USERENV', 'INSTANCE_NAME')  ||  '    Service:  ' || sys_context('USERENV', 'SERVICE_NAME')  PDB_CONNECT_INFO from sys.dual;
PDB_CONNECT_INFO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Connect Info - Host: gract1   PDB:  PDB1    CDB_instance: cdb1      Service:  hr

SQL> connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/hr
PDB_CONNECT_INFO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Connect Info - Host: gract2   PDB:  PDB1    CDB_instance: cdb2      Service:  hr

SQL> connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/hr
PDB_CONNECT_INFO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Connect Info - Host: gract1   PDB:  PDB1    CDB_instance: cdb1      Service:  hr
--> Load balancing between nodes ( gract1,gract2 ) running service hr works fine

Testing dedicated server connections to node gract1,gract2,gract3 
SQL> connect system/sys@gract1:1521/hr
PDB_CONNECT_INFO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Connect Info - Host: gract1   PDB:  PDB1    CDB_instance: cdb1      Service:  hr

SQL> connect system/sys@gract2:1521/hr
PDB_CONNECT_INFO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Connect Info - Host: gract2   PDB:  PDB1    CDB_instance: cdb2      Service:  hr

SQL> connect system/sys@gract3:1521/hr
ERROR:
ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect
descriptor
---> Connect to hr severvice on  cdb3/pdb1  fails as hr service is not running on gract3 
Connect to PDB instance via tnsnames.ora
pdb1 =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = gract-scan.grid12c.example.com)(PORT = 1521))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = pdb1)
    )
  )

$  sqlplus pdb_admin/sys@pdb1
SQL>  show con_name;
CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1

Connect via  alter session set container
SQL> connect / as sysdba.
SQL> show con_name
CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT

SQL> show pdbs
    CON_ID CON_NAME              OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
     2 PDB$SEED              READ ONLY  NO
     3 PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2          MOUNTED

SQL> alter session set container=PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2;
Session altered.
SQL> sho con_name;
CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2

What happens to PDP services when closing a PDB or when CDB crashes ?

Working with services 
Add a service to your PDB 
[oracle@gract1 ~]$ srvctl add service -db cdb -service hr -pdb pdb1 -preferred cdb1,cdb2 -available cdb3

Check service status  
[grid@gract1 ~]$ crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 OFFLINE    OFFLINE         gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 OFFLINE    OFFLINE         gract1       STABLE 

Start service 
[grid@gract1 ~]$ srvctl start service -db cdb -service hr
[grid@gract1 ~]$ crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract2       STABLE 

Relocate Service 
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract2       STABLE 
[grid@gract1 ~]$  srvctl relocate service -db cdb -service hr -oldinst cdb1  -newinst cdb3
[grid@gract1 ~]$  crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract3       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract2       STABLE 

Bring back this service again to original node 
[grid@gract1 ~]$ srvctl relocate service -db cdb -service hr -oldinst cdb3 -newinst cdb1
[grid@gract1 ~]$  crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract2       STABLE 
--->PDB based Service relocation works fine - there is difference the way services work on CDBs 

Stop Service 
[grid@gract1 ~]$ srvctl start service -db cdb -service hr
[grid@gract1 ~]$  crs | egrep 'hr.svc|NAME|----'
NAME                           TARGET     STATE           SERVER       STATE_DETAILS   
-------------------------      ---------- ----------      ------------ ------------------
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 OFFLINE    OFFLINE         gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 OFFLINE    OFFLINE         gract1       STABLE 

Service registration with local and scan listener
[grid@gract1 ~]$  lsnrctl status listener
Service "hr" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...

[grid@gract1 ~]$  lsnrctl status LISTENER_SCAN1
Service "hr" has 2 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Instance "cdb2", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 3 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Instance "cdb2", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Instance "cdb3", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
--> Local listener knows local services runnung on instance  cdb1
     SCAN listener knows   all services running on instances cdb1,cdb2 and cdb3 

Testing service failover after  PDB shutdown ( shutdown immediatede )  and CDB crash ( shutdown abort )
Status:
[grid@gract1 ~]$  srvctl start service -db cdb -s hr
SQL> select INST_ID, NAME ,SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY, global  from gv$active_services where name like 'pdb%' or name like '%hr%';
   INST_ID NAME      SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY     GLO
---------- --------- ------------------------------ ---
     3 pdb1                                         NO
     2 hr            DYNAMIC                        NO
     2 pdb1                                         NO
     1 hr            DYNAMIC                        NO
     1 pdb1                                         NO

Stop the PDB
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close immediate instances=('cdb2');
Pluggable database altered.
SQL> select INST_ID, NAME ,SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY, global  from gv$active_services where name like 'pdb%' or name like '%hr%';
   INST_ID NAME      SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY  GLO
   ---------------- -------------------------- ---
     1 hr                  DYNAMIC             NO
     1 pdb1                                    NO
     3 pdb1                                    NO
     2 pdb1                                    NO
--> Only hr service is removed from nde cd2 : pdb1 service is still active on cdb2
Verifying the PDB service
SQL> connect system/sys@gract2:/pdb1
ERROR:
ORA-01033: ORACLE initialization or shutdown in progress
Process ID: 0
Session ID: 0 Serial number: 0
Warning: You are no longer connected to ORACLE.

SQL> connect system/sys@gract2:/hr
ERROR:
ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect
descriptor
<<<<<< Not sure whether we hit a BUG here - hr services shows the expected behaviour 

Restart CDB and open PDB again
SQL>  alter pluggable database PDB1  open instances=('cdb2');
   INST_ID     CON_ID        DBID    CON_UID NAME     OPEN_MODE  RES
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ---------- ---
     2        3 3362522988 3362522988 PDB1     READ WRITE NO
     1        3 3362522988 3362522988 PDB1     READ WRITE NO
     3        3 3362522988 3362522988 PDB1     MOUNTED

ora.cdb.hr.svc                 ONLINE     ONLINE          gract1       STABLE 
ora.cdb.hr.svc                 OFFLINE    OFFLINE         gract2       STABLE 
--> service remain OFFLINE even after PDB was restarted on INST_ID 2
    this behavior is documented - services on PDB needs to be restarted on startup

Testing failover after a CDB crash ( shutdown abort )  
SQL>  select INST_ID, NAME ,SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY, global  from gv$active_services where name like 'pdb%' or name like '%hr%';
   INST_ID NAME         SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY      GLO
---------- ------------ ------------------------------ ---
     3     pdb1                                        NO
     2     hr           DYNAMIC                        NO
     2     pdb1                                        NO
     1     hr           DYNAMIC                        NO
     1     pdb1                                        NO
--> Run a shutdown abort for INST_ID 2 ( == cdb2 ) - services hr and pdb1 should be terminated asap
[oracle@gract2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> shutdown abort
SQL> select INST_ID, NAME ,SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY, global  from gv$active_services where name like 'pdb%' or name like '%hr%';
   INST_ID NAME               SESSION_STATE_CONSISTENCY      GLO
---------- ------------------ ------------------------------ ---
     3     hr                  DYNAMIC                       NO
     3     pdb1                                              NO
     1     hr                  DYNAMIC                       NO
     1     pdb1                                              NO
--> successfull failover of service hr from cdb2 to cdb3 

Summary:

  • PDB based services fail over if the hosting instance crashes or cdb instance has been stopped with shutdown abort
  • Closing a PDB ( even with immediate switch ) doesn’t failover the PDB service . In that case you need to relocate the PDB services manually ( Not sure whether this is a Bug or not  )

Unplug PDB database and keep ASM datafiles

SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 close immediate;
Pluggable database altered.
SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 unplug into '/home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml';
 alter pluggable database pdb1 unplug into '/home/oracle/PDB/unplugg_pdb1.xml'
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65025: Pluggable database PDB1 is not closed on all instances.
--> Close all pluggable database on all instances
 
SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 close instances=all;
Pluggable database altered.

SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 unplug into '/home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml';
Pluggable database altered.

SQL> drop pluggable database pdb1 keep datafiles;
Pluggable database dropped.

Verify that PDB datafiles are still their but our PDB is finally dropped from Data dictionary 
$  asmcmd ls  +DATA/GRACT1/E7EC3DF06C5D1840E0436F01A8C0692E/DATAFILE/
SYSAUX.285.827944651
SYSTEM.284.827944651
USERS.287.827944875

SQL> show pdbs
    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

 

Plugin a PDB

SQL> create pluggable database pdb_plug_nocopy2 using '/home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml'
        COPY  TEMPFILE REUSE;
Pluggable database created.

SQL> show pdbs;
    CON_ID  CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO
         3 PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2               MOUNTED

SQL> alter pluggable database PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2 open;
Pluggable database altered.
SQL> show pdbs
    CON_ID CON_NAME                OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ---------------------- ---------- ----------
         2 PDB$SEED               READ ONLY  NO
         3 PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2       READ WRITE NO

Using PDBs with Services and Serverpools

Current status 1 serverpool - 3 nodes 
Server pool name: 12c_pool
Active servers count: 3
Active server names: gract1,gract2,gract3
NAME=gract1 STATE=ONLINE
NAME=gract2 STATE=ONLINE
NAME=gract3 STATE=ONLINE

Create a service for our PDB and verify the service locations
$ srvctl add service -db gract1 -service pdb_s1 -pdb pdb_plug_nocopy2 -d 12c_pool
SQL> select INST_ID, NAME ,pdb    from gv$services where name like 'pdb%';
   INST_ID NAME               PDB
---------- ------------------------------ ------------------------------
         1 pdb_plug_nocopy2          PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2  
         2 pdb_plug_nocopy2          PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2
         3 pdb_plug_nocopy2          PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2
--> PDB database PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2 is currently serviced by any of our CDBs ( gract1_1, gract1_2, gract_3) 

Create a new server pool and verify serverpool status
$ srvctl add serverpool  -serverpool NEW_12c_pool -min 1 -max 2 -i 5 -f
$ srvctl status serverpool -detail
.. 
Server pool name: 12c_pool
Active servers count: 2
Active server names: gract2,gract3
NAME=gract2 STATE=ONLINE
NAME=gract3 STATE=ONLINE

Server pool name: NEW_12c_pool
Active servers count: 1
Active server names: gract1
NAME=gract1 STATE=ONLINE
--> gract1 is moved from 12c_pool to newly created serverpool NEW_12c_pool
SQL> select INST_ID, NAME ,pdb    from gv$services where name like 'pdb%';
   INST_ID NAME               PDB
---------- ------------------------------ ------------------------------
     2 pdb_plug_nocopy2          PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2
     3 pdb_plug_nocopy2          PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2
--> PDB database PDB_PLUG_NOCOPY2 is now only serviced by gract2 and gract3 whereas gract1 can do some work for other RAC/CDBs

 

Error ORA-65319 after create pluggable database

Steps to reproduce:
  - close the PDBs on all instances
  - alter pluggable database pdb1 unplug into ....
  - drop pluggable database pdb1 keep datafiles;
  - create pluggable database with NOCOPY ( ( here datafile header will be changed )
  - open that  PDB ( here datafile header will be changed )
  - close and drop  the newly plugged in PDB again  ( using keep datafiles )
  - try to create the pluggable database with NOCOPY
--> ORA-65319 during create pluggable database
SQL> create pluggable database pdb_plug_nocopy2 using '/home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml'
      NOCOPY     TEMPFILE REUSE;
create pluggable database pdb_plug_nocopy2 using '/home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml'
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65139: Mismatch between XML metadata file and data file
+DATA/GRACT1/E7EC3DF06C5D1840E0436F01A8C0692E/DATAFILE/system.284.827944651 for
value of afn (16 in the plug XML file, 19 in the data file)
---> Not sure whether this is supported but in case of ORA-65139 the PDB can be reopened by editing pdb1_unplug.xml.
---> Sample change  afn to 19 in /home/oracle/PDB/pdb1_unplug.xml .
     Do the same for other XML properties like : fcpsb ,  createscnbas

 

Create Common and  Local users

Create a COMMON user
SQL> connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/cdb
SQL> create user c##cdb_admin  identified by x container=all;
SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION TO  c##cdb_admin  container=all;

Connect to CDB 
SQL> connect c##cdb_admin/x@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/cdb
Connected.
Connect to PDB
SQL>  connect c##cdb_admin/x@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/pdb1
Connected.

Create a LOCAL user
SQL> connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/cdb
SQL> create user local_admin  identified by x container=current;
  create user local_admin  identified by x container=current
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65049: creation of local user or role is not allowed in CDB$ROOT
--> Need to connect to PDB
SQL>  connect system/sys@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/pdb1
SQL> create user local_admin  identified by x container=current;
User created.
SQL>  GRANT CREATE SESSION TO local_admin container=current;
Grant succeeded.

SQL>  connect local_admin/x@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/pdb1
Connected.
SQL>   connect local_admin/x@gract-scan.grid12c.example.com:/cdb
ERROR:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied
--> If  users are  not defined in CDB/PDBs you will get:  ORA-1017

Verify user by querying CDB_USERS view 
SQL> select USERNAME,COMMON,CON_ID from cdb_users where  USERNAME like  '%CDB_ADMIN%' or USERNAME like   '%LOCAL_ADMIN%';
USERNAME         COM     CON_ID
---------------- --- ----------
C##CDB_ADMIN      YES      1
C##CDB_ADMIN      YES      3
LOCAL_ADMIN        NO      3

--> User LOCAL_ADMIN is only defined in container 3 which is our PDB
    User   CDB_ADMIN connect connect to CDB and PDB1

PDB FAQ

How do I know if my database is Multitenant or not ?
SQL> select NAME, DECODE(CDB, 'YES', 'Multitenant Option enabled', 'Regular 12c Database: ') "Multitenant Option ?" ,
    OPEN_MODE, CON_ID from V$DATABASE;
NAME      Multitenant Option ?         OPEN_MODE              CON_ID
--------- -------------------------- -------------------- ----------
CDB      Multitenant Option enabled READ WRITE            0

How do I find all the CDB and all PDBs
SQL>  SELECT NAME, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID FROM V$CONTAINERS ORDER BY CON_ID;
NAME                   CON_ID    DBID    CON_UID GUID
------------------------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- --------------------------------
CDB$ROOT                1 1971413870          1 DD7C48AA5A4504A2E04325AAE80A403C
PDB$SEED                2 4097414398 4097414398 FFE2B5D067357B55E0436F01A8C0F0F0
PDB1                    3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE

What Pluggable databases do we have in this container database ?
SQL>  select CON_ID, NAME, OPEN_MODE from V$PDBS;
    CON_ID NAME               OPEN_MODE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
     3 PDB1               READ WRITE

How do I connect to a Pluggable Database , say, PDB1 and back to root container ?
SQL>  alter session set container = pdb1;
SQL> show con_name
CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
SQL>  ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER = CDB$ROOT;
SQL> show con_name
CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT

Can I monitor SGA usage on a PDB by PDB basis?
There are single SGA shared by all pluggable databases. However, you can determine SGA consumptions by all containers i.e, root and PDB.
SQL> alter session set container=CDB$ROOT;
SQL>  SELECT NAME, CON_ID, DBID, CON_UID, GUID FROM V$CONTAINERS ORDER BY CON_ID;
NAME                   CON_ID    DBID    CON_UID GUID
------------------------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- --------------------------------
CDB$ROOT                1 1971413870          1 DD7C48AA5A4504A2E04325AAE80A403C
PDB$SEED                2 4097414398 4097414398 FFE2B5D067357B55E0436F01A8C0F0F0
PDB1                    3 3362522988 3362522988 FFE30B05B94B1D25E0436F01A8C05EFE
SQL>  select POOL, NAME, BYTES from V$SGASTAT where CON_ID = 3;
POOL         NAME                 BYTES
------------ -------------------------- ----------
shared pool  ktli log buffer pools           616
shared pool  KQR X PO                807856
...
large pool   SWRF Metric Eidbuf         368640
large pool   SWRF Metric CHBs           1802240

SQL> select CON_ID, POOL, sum(bytes) from  v$sgastat group by CON_ID, POOL order by  CON_ID, POOL;
    CON_ID POOL     SUM(BYTES)
---------- ------------ ----------
     0 java pool       4194304
     0 large pool       2179072
     0 shared pool      23187808
     0         122522608
     1 large pool       1867776
     1 shared pool     241739224
     2 large pool       2170880
     2 shared pool       5147720
     3 large pool       2170880
     3 shared pool      27720832

Can I monitor PGA usage on a PDB by PDB basis?
SQL> select CON_ID, sum(PGA_USED_MEM), sum(PGA_ALLOC_MEM), sum(PGA_MAX_MEM) from  v$process group by CON_ID order by  CON_ID;
    CON_ID SUM(PGA_USED_MEM) SUM(PGA_ALLOC_MEM) SUM(PGA_MAX_MEM)
---------- ----------------- ------------------ ----------------
     0       231006520          297505736        399513864
     1         9719884           16203316     20004404

How can I identify shared objects in the data dictionary ?
OBJECT LINK and  METADATA LINK objects are shared objects 
SQL>  select count(sharing),sharing  from cdb_objects group by sharing;
COUNT(SHARING) SHARING
-------------- -------------
     19152 NONE
       441 OBJECT LINK
    252646 METADATA LINK

References

 

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